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Test Code VMA Vanillylmandelic Acid, 24 Hour, Urine

Reporting Name

Vanillylmandelic Acid, 24 Hr, U

Useful For

Screening children for catecholamine-secreting tumors with a 24-hour urine collection when requesting testing for only vanillylmandelic acid

 

Supporting a diagnosis of neuroblastoma

 

Monitoring patients with a treated neuroblastoma

Performing Laboratory

Mayo Clinic Laboratories in Rochester

Specimen Type

Urine


Advisory Information


In the past, this test has been used to screen for pheochromocytoma. However, vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) is not the analyte of choice to rule out a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Recommended tests for that purpose include:

-PMET / Metanephrines, Fractionated, Free, Plasma

-METAF / Metanephrines, Fractionated, 24 Hour, Urine

-CATU / Catecholamine Fractionation, Free, 24 Hour, Urine



Necessary Information


1. Patients age is required.

2. Collection duration and urine volume are required.

3. All patients receiving L-dopa should be identified to the laboratory when this test is ordered.

4. Bactrim may interfere with detection of the analyte. All patients taking Bactrim should be identified to the laboratory when this test is ordered.



Specimen Required


Patient Preparation: Administration of L-dopa may falsely-increase vanillylmandelic acid results; it should be discontinued 24 hours prior to and during collection of specimen.

Supplies: Urine Tubes, 10 mL (T068)

Specimen Volume: 5 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Collect a 24-hour urine specimen.

2. Add 25 mL of 50% acetic acid as preservative at the start of collection. If specimen is refrigerated during collection, preservative may be added up to 12 hours after collection. Use 15 mL of 50% acetic acid for children <5 years old. This preservative is intended to achieve a pH of between approximately 1 and 5. If necessary, adjust urine pH to 1 to 5 with 50% acetic or hydrochloric acid.

Additional Information: See Urine Preservatives-Collection and Transportation for 24-Hour Urine Specimens in Special Instructions for multiple collections.


Specimen Minimum Volume

2 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Urine Refrigerated (preferred) 28 days
  Frozen  180 days

Reference Values

<1 year: <25.0 mg/g creatinine

1 year: <22.5 mg/g creatinine

2-4 years: <16.0 mg/g creatinine

5-9 years: <12.0 mg/g creatinine

10-14 years: <8.0 mg/g creatinine

≥15 years (adults): <8.0 mg/24 hours

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Monday, Thursday; 8 a.m.

Test Classification

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

84585

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
VMA Vanillylmandelic Acid, 24 Hr, U 43099-1

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
3580 Vanillylmandelic Acid, Adult (>14y) 3122-9
3581 Vanillylmandelic Acid, Child (<15y) 30571-4
TM41 Collection Duration 13362-9
VL39 Urine Volume 3167-4

Method Description

Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) is measured by solid-phase extraction (SPE) of a 1-mL aliquot of urine. A known amount of stable-isotope labeled VMA internal standard (IS) is added to each urine specimen prior to SPE. VMA and IS are eluted from the SPE column with methanol. The methanol is evaporated and the VMA and IS are redissolved in liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) mobile phase. A portion of this prepared extract is injected onto a LC column that separates VMA and IS from the bulk of any remaining specimen matrix. The VMA and IS are measured by mass spectrometry/tandem-mass spectrometry using the selected reaction monitoring mode. VMA is quantified using the ratio to IS versus urine calibrators.(Magera MJ, Thompson AL, Stoor AL, et al: Determination of vanillylmandelic acid in urine by stable isotope dilution and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 2003;49:825-826; Eisenhofer G, Grebe S, Cheung NV: Monoamine-producing tumors. In Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT, eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018:chap 63)

Reject Due To

All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Method Name

Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

Urine Preservative Collection Options

Note: The addition of preservative or application of temperature controls must occur within 4 hours of completion of the collection.

Ambient

No

Refrigerate

No

Frozen

No

50% Acetic Acid

Preferred

Boric Acid

OK

Diazolidinyl Urea

No

6M Hydrochloric Acid

OK

6M Nitric Acid

OK

Sodium Carbonate

No

Thymol

No

Toluene

No

*If boric acid is used, note on specimen container. Also, verify that pH is in desired range (pH=1-5). If pH is outside of desired range, adjust pH with a stronger acid (acetic acid is preferred but other acids listed above could be used if available) in a dropwise fashion to bring pH into desired range.